2 Types of Alloy Steel Castings: Low and High Alloy Steels

Alloy steel castings are used to create items such as hydroelectric turbine wheels, presses in forging, gears and truck frames. It can be used to create valve bodies and pump casings. Also, mining machinery and marine equipment can be created with such castings.

Steel casting involves various types of steel cast in a specialized form. These castings are used when cast irons cannot be used due to the lack of strength or any shock resistance. Alloy steel is formed when steel is combined with different kinds of elements that are present in a total amount of 1.0 percent and 10.0 percent that improves its mechanical properties. Although steel can be called an alloy, not every kind of steel is alloy steel.

The simple steels are made up of iron and carbon. However, alloy steels are steels that have other elements added to it deliberately. Common elements added to simple steel to make it alloy steel includes manganese, copper, nickel, and chromium. It can also include boron or silicon. Alloy elements that are less popular include cobalt niobium, aluminum, titanium, tin, zinc, and lead.

There are two types of allow steel casting, the low alloy steels, and the high alloy steels.

Low Alloys Steels
Low alloy steels possess precise chemical compositions and they provide better mechanical properties. These alloys are added to simple steel for specific attributes only. For example, one can add molybdenum for strength and nickel for anti-corrosive properties. Adding silicon, on the other hand, provides greater de-oxidizing properties. Despite the addition of the elements in varying degrees, this type of steel isn’t difficult to weld at all. Knowing exactly what is needed is important to achieve good weld integrity.

Some of its uses are:
  • Construction equipment, military equipment.
  • Cross country pipelines, pressure vessels, piping and drilling platforms.
  • Boiler and pressure vessel fabrication.
  • Artwork, bridges, facing material on buildings.

High Alloy Steels

These are a group of excessive and specialized steels that contain alloy levels that are in excess of 10 percent, which gives them some outstanding properties.

A popular steel of this category is the austenitic manganese steel that has high levels of carbon and manganese that provides for its excellent qualities. It has the ability to harden while undergoing cold work and provides great toughness that is not so easy to weld. The structure of these types of steel is crystalline in nature.

These steels are highly resistant to corrosion and weathering as they generally contain more chromium than low allow steels. Another popular substitute is nickel to forge stainless steels of great durability.

This type of steel is popular for hot works, cold works, air works and well as water works industries. Special care must be taken to handle these types of steels due to the high levels of alloy.

Some of it uses are:

  • Production of stainless steels to resist corrosion.
  • Cutting and forming operations for tool steels.
  • Punches, forming die forgings.
  • Oil carriers, air tanks.

Alloy steel castings have been a massive industry for years, experimenting with the different composition of elements to create better and stronger steel for all purposes.